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故宫算法生形看不见的城市 菲朵拉

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      课程题目/Studio Project

Media Fabrication IV

媒体建造设计4



故宫算法生形看不见的城市

Algorithmic Figuration:

form forbidden city to invisible city

本课程是北京服装学院环境设计系媒体建造专业方向本科三年级第二学期的设计课。课程是在算法环境的基础之上,通过编程进行算法生成城市设计。21世纪的生产生活已经全面进入数字化时代,随着5G、人工智能与大数据、物联网的发展,人类将在近几年内进入全面数字化时代。本课程的设计方法论与设计思维方式是建立在全面数字化基础之上,学习参数化,算法化,涌现式的非线性设计方法与创新。理解基于实证性的社会空间动力学原理,初步学习基于复杂性科学的计算机模拟的基本方法,在设计分析与设计生形中初步运用算法,实现一定程度的涌现式设计。

本次课程的导师是车飞教授,课程的主题是“故宫算法生形看不见的城市”。整个课程分为两个阶段:第一阶段:故宫算法。每组同学选择以故宫的一组建筑空间元素为主题开展研究并编写计算机算法。第二阶段:看不见的城市。每组同学首先阅读卡尔维诺的著作《看不见的城市》,并从中选择一座自己最感兴趣的城市为主题,运用此前完成的故宫算法去生形城市设计。

This course is the second semester of the third year undergraduate of media fabrication in the Department of Environmental Design, Beijing Institute of Fashion Technology (BIFT).  The course is based on the algorithm environment, and the algorithm is used to generate urbanism  through scripting.  The production and everyday life of the 21st century have entered the total-digital era. With the development of 5G, artificial intelligence, big data and the Internet of Things, human beings will enter the era of comprehensive digitalization in recent years.  The design methodology and design thinking methods of this course are based on comprehensive digitalization, learning parametric, algorithmic, and emerging nonlinear design methods and innovations.  Understand the empirical principles of social space dynamics, initially learn the basic methods of computer simulation based on complexity science, and initially use algorithms in design analysis and design shaping to achieve a certain degree of emergent design.

The instructor of this course is Professor CHE Fei. The theme of the course is "Algorithmic Figuration: form forbidden city to invisible city".  The entire course is divided into two stages: the first stage: the forbidden city Algorithm.  Each group of students chose to conduct research and write computer algorithms on the theme of a group of architectural space elements in the Forbidden City.  The second stage: the invisible city.  Each group of students first read Calvino's book "The Invisible City", and select a city that interests them most as a theme, and use the previously completed Forbidden City algorithm to shape the city design.

小组主题/Topic:

布局与等级空间算法生形菲朵拉

Layout & Hierarchical Algorithm for Fedora

课程导师/Instructor:

车飞/Prof. Dr.- Ing. CHE Fei

学生/Students:

周海玲/Zhou Hailing 孔德威/Kong Dewei

故宫算法

The Forbiden City Algorithm

1.前期调研

Preliminary investigation

故宫建筑群的布局与等级空间算法:

测量各个建筑群的进深比,确定不同建筑群的等级,赋予不同等级建筑群不同的高度参数,形成同等级建筑群之间和不同等级建筑群之间的空间线,构建空间体块。

Layout and Hierarchical spatial algorithm of the Imperial Palace Complex:

It measures the depth ratio of each building group, determines the levels of different building groups, assigns different height parameters to different building groups, forms space lines between buildings of the same level and between buildings of different levels, and constructs space blocks.

建筑进深比和等级:

“进深比”即建筑群长宽的比例。我们通过测量和研究,我们发现  故宫不同等级的建筑群有不同的进深比,且相同等级的建筑的进深比大体在同一个范围。

我们通过对比故宫内各建筑群本来的等级,通过计算得到各建筑群的深宽比在0和1之间波动。于是我们设定每0.1的波动为同一个范围,同一个等级。

Building depth ratio and grade:

The "depth ratio" is the ratio of the length and width of the complex. Through measurement and research, we found that different levels of buildings in the Forbidden City have different depth-to-depth ratios,  and  the  depth-to-depth ratios of buildings of the same level are generally in the same range.

By comparing the original grade of the buildings in the Forbidden City, we calculated that the depth-width ratio of the buildings fluctuated between 0 and 1 . So we set every 0.1 fluctuation to the same range, the same level.



越靠近中心的建筑群,其形制规模越规整、宏大,越具有强烈的象征意味。而越靠近边缘的建筑群,其形制规模越紧凑,更偏向于布局上的精简和功能上的实用。

The closer the complex is to the center, the more regular and grand its shape and structure are, and the more strongly symbolic it is. The closer the buildings are to the edge, the more compact they are, the more they tend to be streamlined in layout and practical in function.

2.类比与参数化

Analogy and parameterization

每一种颜色代表一个等级范围

黄:最高级

红:高级

橙:次高级

蓝:次低级

紫:低级

黑:最低级

Each color represents a range of grades

Yellow: Top

Red: high

Orange: secondary

blue: secondary

Purple: Low

Black: lowest







故宫院落位置坐标化



The coordinate representation of the Imperial Palace

3.规则设计

Rule design

规则:初始点等级设置

一等级进深比区间:0.5≤x <0.6

二等级进深比区间:0.6≤x <0.7

三等级进深比区间:0.4≤x <0.5

四等级进深比区间:0.7≤x <0.8

五等级进深比区间:0.9≤x <1

六等级进深比区间:0.5≤x <0.7

Rule:Initial point level setting

First level depth ratio interval: 0.5 ≤ x <0.6

Second level depth ratio interval: 0.6 ≤ x <0.7

Three levels of depth ratio interval: 0.4 ≤ x <0.5

Four levels of depth ratio interval: 0.7 ≤ x <0.8

Five levels of depth ratio interval: 0.9 ≤ x <1

Six levels of depth ratio range: 0.5≤ x <0.7



4.算法

Algorithm

算法名称:布局与等级空间生成

说明:通过对空间平面布局进行分析后,得出相应等级的初始点, 对初始点按等级高低逐次定义高度参数,通过同等级与不同等级初始点之间的连线形成不同空间的连线,由此生成空间体块。

Algorithm name: Layout and rank space generation:

Description: after analyzing the spatial plane layout, the initial points of the corresponding level are obtained, and the height parameters of the initial points are defined successively according to the level. The connecting lines between the initial points of the same level and different levels are formed to form the connecting lines of different Spaces, thus generating the space block.







5.基本原型

Basic prototype

原型:

由规则和算法可以得到两个不同的空间组成方向:即相同等级空间之间的组成和不同等级空间之间的组成。

相同等级初始点形成的空间:具有较短且较密集的空间连线,因此其形成的空间的体块小而密集,体块之间交叠复杂,空间排列相对密集。

不同等级初始点形成的空间:具有较长且较稀疏的空间连线,因此其形成的空间体块大而稀疏,体块之间错落明显,空间排列相对独立。

Prototype:

From the rules and algorithms, two different spatial composition directions can be obtained: the composition between the same level space and the composition between the different level space.

The space formed by the initial points of the same grade: there are shorter and denser spatial connections, so the volume of the space formed is small and dense, with complex overlapping between the volumes and relatively dense spatial arrangement.

Space formed by initial points of different grades: there are long and sparse spatial lines, so the space blocks formed by them are large and sparse, with obvious interlocation and relatively independent spatial arrangement.



《看不见的城市》

——菲朵拉

Invisible city

—Fedora

1 .城市概述

Overview of cities

灰石建造的城市菲朵拉的中心有一座金属建筑物,它的每间房内都有一个玻璃圆球。在每个玻璃圆球里都能看到一座蓝色的城市,那是另一座菲朵拉城的模型。菲朵拉本可以成为模型里的样子,却由于种种原因变成了现在我们所见到的模样。在每个时代里都有某些人,看着当时的菲朵拉,想象着如何把她改建成理想的城市,然而当他们制作理想城市的模型时,菲朵拉已经不再是从前的城市,而那个直至昨日还是可能的未来城市也就只能成为玻璃球里的一件玩具。今日收藏那些玻璃球的建筑物是菲朵拉的博物馆:每个市民来参观,选择符合自己愿望的玻璃球里的城市,仔细端详着,想象着汇集运河水的水母池中倒影的飘逸(倘若它今日没有干涸的话),想象着骑在配有篷伞的象背上,行走在大象专用道上的滋味(可现在已经禁止大象进城了),想象着顺着清真寺螺旋形塔尖往下滑行的乐趣(可现在连塔身的基础都找不到了)。在你的帝国的版图上,伟大的可汗啊,应该既能找到石头建造的大菲朵拉,又能找到玻璃球里的小菲朵拉。这并非由于她们都同样真实,而是由于她们都同样是假想的。前者包含了被当做必需而接受的东西,但其实尚非不可或缺,而后者被想象为有可能存在,但瞬间之后就再也不可能了。

——《看不见的城市》 第二章 城市与欲望 之四

In the center of Fedora, that gray stone metropolis, stands a metal building with a crystal globe in every room. Looking into each globe, you see a blue city, the model of a different Fedora. These are the forms the city could have taken if, for one reason or another, it had not become what we see today. In every age someone, looking at Fedora as it was, imagined a way of making it the ideal city, but while he constructed his miniature model, Fedora was already no longer the same as it was before, and what had been until yesterday a possible future became only a toy in a glass globe.The building with the globes is now Fedora's museum: every inhabitant visits it, chooses the city that corresponds to his desires, contemplates it, imagining his reflection in the medusa pond that would have collected the waters of the canal (if it had not been dried up), the view from the high canopied box along the avenue reserved for elephants (now banished from the city), the fun of sliding down the spiral, twisting minaret (which never found a pedestal from which to rise).

On the map of your empire, o Great Khan, there must be room both for the big, stone Fedora and the little Fedoras in glass globes. Not because they are all equally real, but because all are only assumptions. The one contains what is accepted as necessary when it is not yet SO; the others, what is imagined as possible and, a moment later, is possible no longer.

—The Invisible City Chapter II Cities and Desire 4

2.城市理解

Understanding of the city

这是一个永远在被建而又没有被建成的城市,城市中的所有的组成部分都在时时刻刻地改变,唯独城市中间的金属建筑永恒存在。它不因时间的改变而改变,还记录这个城市过往的种种发展。

金属建筑是这个城市的核心,是“等级最高”的组成部分。城市其  余部分均依附它存在。

整个城市,除了中心的金属建筑,其余部分都是不断被修建又不断被改变的,不断扩张的各种城市功能区域,随时随地因需求和规划的改变而改变。

This is a city that is always built but never built. All the components of the city are changing all the time, except the metal building in the middle of the city. It does not change with time, but also records the past development of the city.

Metal buildings are the heart of the city, the "highest grade" component. The rest of the city depends on it.

In addition to the metal buildings in the center, the rest of the city is constantly being built and changed. Various urban functional areas are constantly expanding, changing anytime and anywhere due to the changing needs and planning.

菲朵拉的城市形态具有强烈的层级结构,城市由等级划分区域。层层“叠加”“嵌套”。有大量的社会生活空间和较少的信仰、象征空间。

The urban form of Fedora has a strong hierarchical structure, with cities divided into regions by hierarchy. Layer upon layer, layer upon layer. There is a lot of space for social life and less space for belief and symbol.

3.意向图

Imaginary picture

阅读原文文段,首先想到的是一个高塔,塔的上部是整个城市的信仰所在,也是城市的决策中心,从这里发出的信号左右整个城市的发展。塔的中部是商务商业区,是整个城市的交流中心,塔的下部是各式各样的城市功能区以及居民居住区域,是整个城市运行的基础。整个城市的人、物、信息在塔里流转自上而下,或者说是自下而上,整个城市不断蔓延发展。

Reading the original text, the first thing that comes to mind is a high tower. The upper part of the tower is where the faith of the whole city is located, and it is also the decision-making center of the city. The signal sent from here influences the development of the whole city. In the middle of the tower is the business district, which is the communication center of the whole city. At the bottom of the tower are various urban functional areas and residential areas, which are the basis for the operation of the whole city. The whole city's people, things and information flow in the tower from the top down, or from the bottom up, and the whole city keeps spreading and developing.



4.城市形态结构分析

Analysis of urban morphology and structure

建筑等级由中心向四周递减

The building grade decreases from the center to the periphery


道路等级由中心向四周递减

The level of the road decreases from the center to the periphery





5.城市案例分析

Urban case analysis

巴塞罗那的公共空间改造充分考虑人的需求,随处可见的社区公园就是很好的证明。这些社区公园主要是建筑围合的内院型空间,设计朴实无华且平易近人。社区公园- .般面积不大,200~1000 m2不等,布置了大量安全性及耐用性很高的公共设施,整个空间功能划分明确合理,能够满足多种人群的使用需求。这些社区公园从根本上改善了人们的生活质量和居住环境。而街道作为连接城市公共空间的重要途径,其与公共空间的组合模式使得各类公共空间形成连续的城市公共空间体系。这些连续的公共空间提高了人们的生活质量,方便了人们的出行和交流,极大扩展了公共生活的场所,把人重新作为城市的主 体。本文通过对巴塞罗那城市公共空间类型,公共空间与街道组合模式的归纳和研究,分析出社区公园、大型公园、道旁公共空间与街道的组合模式,强调街道本身就是重要的城市公共空间。

The transformation of public space in Barcelona takes people's needs into full consideration, as evidenced by the ubiquitous community parks. These community parks  are mainly inner courtyard-like Spaces enclosed by the building, designed in an unpretentious and approachable way. The general area of the community park is small, ranging from 200 to 1000 m2. It is equipped with a large number of public facilities with high safety and durability. The whole space function is clearly and reasonably divided, which can meet the needs of a variety of people. These community parks fundamentally improve people's quality of life and living environment.As an important way to connect urban public space, the combination mode of street and public space makes all kinds of public space form a continuous urban public space system. These continuous public Spaces improve the quality of people's life, facilitate people's travel and communication, greatly expand the space of public life, and put people back as the main body of the city. By summarizing and studying the urban public space type, public space and street combination mode in Barcelona, this paper analyzes the combination mode of community park, large park, roadside public space and street, and emphasizes that the street itself is an important urban public space.



6.初始设计

lnital design

看不见的城市的算法:

1.结合故宫得出的算法,把平面布局中不同等级的圆的圆心作为算法的初始点,然后用算法连接对于每个点最近的10个点之间的连线,以此来探讨城市空间布局的疏密关系。

2.由连线生成空间平面。

3.依据算法规则的设定,赋予不同等级初始点相对应的高度参数, 由此同等级初始点之间的连线形成平面,异等级之间连线形成空间体对角线,由此生成城市空间体块。

Invisible City algorithm:

1.Combined with the algorithm obtained by the Palace Museum, the center of circles of different levels in the plane layout is taken as the initial point of the algorithm, and then the algorithm is used to connect the lines between the nearest 10 points of each point, so as to explore the density relationship of urban spatial layout.

2.Generate the space plane from the line.

3.According to the setting of algorithm rules, the height parameters corresponding to the initial points of different grades are given, so that the lines between the initial points of the same grade form a plane, and the lines between different grades form diagonal lines of the space body, thus generating the urban space block.



7.涌现与模式

Emergence and Mode

看不见的城市的算法:

1.结合故宫得出的算法,把平面布局中不同等级的圆的圆心作为算法的初始点,然后用算法连接对于每个点最近的10个点之间的连线,以此来探讨城市空间布局的疏密关系。

2.由连线生成空间平面。

3.依据算法规则的设定,赋予不同等级初始点相对应的高度参数, 由此同等级初始点之间的连线形成平面,异等级之间连线形成空间体对角线,由此生成城市空间体块。

Invisible City algorithm:

1.Combined with the algorithm obtained by the Palace Museum, the center of circles of different levels in the plane layout is taken as the initial point of the algorithm, and then the algorithm is used to connect the lines between the nearest 10 points of each point, so as to explore the density relationship of urban spatial layout.

2.Generate the space plane from the line.

3.According to the setting of algorithm rules, the height parameters corresponding to the initial points of different grades are given, so that the lines between the initial points of the same grade form a plane, and the lines between different grades form diagonal lines of the space body, thus generating the urban space block.



8.功能分析

Functional analysis





9.多方案比较

Comparison of multiple schemes





10.最终确定方案设计

Eventually design the plan

摒弃浮夸的外部表面研究最本质的城市建筑空间关系,从低等级的初始点连接高一等级的初始点形成空间体块,自下而上进行涌现。

Abandoning the grandiose external surface to study the most essential spatial relationship of urban buildings, connecting the initial points of the lower level with the initial points of the higher level to form a space block, and emerging from the bottom up.to form a space block, which is the bottom-up emergence mode.



11 .制图、模型与渲染

Cartography, Modeling and Rendering



总平面图

Site-plan



爆炸轴测图

Site-plan Explosion axonometric mapping



北立面图North elevation



西立面图West elevation



渲染效果图-远景Render renderings-Vision



渲染效果图-近景Render renderings-Close shot

最终方案设计说明:

我们最终选择了方案五,是因为方案五更符合我们对菲朵拉这个城市设想。在《看不见的城市》中菲朵拉的它的形态是随时可能变化的,但唯一不变的可能就是这个城市中心建筑。它象征这个城市的最高等级。它的城市形态具有强烈的层级结构,城市由等级划分区域。层层“叠加”“嵌套”。在算法规则的设定中,它的形态是可以变的,但初始点的等级是无法改变的,因此这种算法生成出的不同空间体块的嵌套,叠加,更加符合我们对菲朵拉的设想。

Final design description:

We chose option five because it was more in line with our vision of the city of Fidora. In The Invisible City, The shape of Fedora may change at any time, but the only constant possibility is the building in the city center. It symbolizes the highest rank of the city. Its urban form has a strong hierarchical structure. Cities are divided into regions by hierarchy. Layer upon layer, layer upon layer. In the setting of algorithm rules, its shape can be changed, but the level of initial point cannot be changed. Therefore, the nesting and superposition of different space blocks generated by this algorithm are more consistent with our assumption of Fedora.





北京服装学院 艺术设计学院

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