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善祥建筑设计新作|山禅水定 幽深静谧


"The heart is like a painter, who can paint the world"

-The fourth article of "Hua Yan Sutra"



Design thinking

The world has its own appearance, but it is different in everyone's mind.

Dahe Temple, also known as Dahe nunnery, was built in the Ming Dynasty. It is located on a gentle slope with an altitude of more than 800 meters,which is in the valley west of Dahe Village, Dachi Town, Xinluo District, Longyan City, Fujian Province. There is only one spiral road along the valley to enter the temple, surrounded by lush bamboos and gurgling water. At the end of the valley, the temple suddenly become bright open,behind which is the main peak of Mount Hammerhead. Surrounded by the green hills, the temple is quiet and deep. The original temple building has passed away while the existing temple houses was renovated in the 1990s, covering about 300 square meters and including the gate tower, Hall of Ceremony,  temple hall, kitchen and several storage rooms. Provided village,there are basically Hakka Ancestral Halls. The temple is located in the countryside of the Hakka area. Therefore, it is also Quadrangle form similar to the local Clan, Ancestral Hall. Compared with the traditional large temples, it has a small charm. With the changes of the times, The number of this kind of temple is gradually decreasing.




As more and more people want to come to Dahe Temple to learn Buddhism and experience meditation, the original small temples became increasingly unacceptable, so the Abbot mage had to expand it so that at least four to fifty students could meditate at the same time.


This design of expansion mainly has three sub-items:

The first one is to build a new meditation center, including meditation halls, classrooms, student dormitories, tea rooms, etc., to provide a learning and resting space for believers who come to meditation,which is ,this time, the most important design as well as one of the largest venues. The whole adopts a traditional courtyard layout, using a brick-concrete structure and a traditional bucket-type wooden roof truss, which was built by the village constructors. Some villagers donated two 11-meter-long wooden beams, which were originally reserved for their children to build new houses. However, the traditional wooden structures are basically no longer used in the construction of concrete houses in rural areas,so they are rightly used as roof trusses in the largest Zen hall . The meditation hall is one of the most important courses in the practice of Buddhism. It is a venue full of Tall, broad, solemn and quiet for meditation. Masters and lay practitioners practice meditation and concentration here every day and sometimes they also do homework such as copying scriptures and offering lamps. In addition, there are certain believers who donated a large rosewood slab measuring 6.5 meters long plus 1 meter wide, which happened to be used as a tea table in the tea room. The wooden frame of the tea room is purchased from the old building materials market, with different from deep and light,the old and new, with a unique charm.In addition to drinking tea and chatting, the tea room is also a place for people to recite passages from scriptures and discuss Buddhism. The meditation center only uses modern methods in the details of the pool ,the doors and windows of the meditation hall.



The second is to build a retreat yard, including a small Buddhist hall and four retreat rooms, which can be used by four deep meditators to retreat. The inner courtyard can be used for walking meditation and Tai Chi exercises. The layout of the small courtyard is adapted to local conditions,the door of which is entered from the side. The roof material of the gate tower is made of wood structure and weather-resistant steel plate, which is different from the gate towers of the meditation center and the old temple. (Retreat means that the practitioner lives alone, meditates on the Dharma, does not associate with anyone, and goes out only after a certain period of time).

The retreat room and the meditation center as a whole refer to the form and scale of the traditional Hakka dwellings in Longyan.



The third is to renovate the original old temple. The terrain of the temple is low, and the exterior color is mainly dark red and somewhat dark. This time, the outer wall is redesigned with warm white, whose color is brighter, and the courtyards are more coordinated with each other. Many local details such as the courtyard, interior, doors and windows, cornices, etc. have been adjusted and optimized to make them more pure and elegant.

In addition, the paths connecting the courtyards and the surrounding landscape have also been planned. Of course, the biggest feature of the landscape is the integration and borrowing of the surrounding green waters and mountains.



I entered this ancient temple early in the morning, and the rising sun shone on the mountains and forests.

The winding path leads to the deep, and the Buddhist temple is hidden among the luxuriant flowers and trees.

The bright scenery in the mountains makes the birds more joyous, the lake is clear and clear, and the shadows in the lake are all fascinating.

At this moment, everything is silent and silent, leaving only the sound of bells and chimes.

清晨入古寺,初日照高林。 曲径通幽处,禅房花木深。 山光悦鸟性,潭影空人心。 万籁此俱寂,但余钟磬音。

At the beginning of the design, the designer thought of the poem "reveal the meditation house behind the mountain temple" written by Chang Jian, a poet in the Tang Dynasty, and hoped that ,with the passage of time, there will increasingly be the artistic conception described in the ancient poems after completion.

Natural landscapes are originally paintings, and the designer adds nothing more than a little bit of embellishment in the landscape. Some locals said that Longyan is a mountainous area, and there are such mountains everywhere. I didn't think it was any strange here before. Now, after the temple was built, it was discovered that the scenery here turned out to be so beautiful. In fact, it should only be that the architecture has activated many people's perception of the landscape, making many local people start to re-recognize the local landscape.



"Neither birth nor death, neither dirt nor clean, nor increase nor decrease"

-"Heart Sutra"



Naturally built

Must the temple be resplendent and magnificent? Must people worship luxury to have faith? Doesn't it contradict the Buddha's original teaching? Can't temple architecture learn from folk houses? Isn't a house called temple without Cornices, brackets and carved dragons and phoenixes ? If a temple is concise and simple, and cost-saving, is it more in line with the Buddhist desire for restraint and the modern concept of environmental protection If a temple is concise and simple, and cost-saving? The present is an era of rich or even surplus materials, and,at the same time, people's extreme greed for money. It is also an era of overwhelming images. Excessively chasing temple construction is not necessarily so for a good thing. It is easy to lead the masses toward material worship and ignore the true meaning of Buddhism.



Regarding nature,not only can it refer to the entire universe, but it can refer to the countryside,mountains and waters outside the city as well. At the same time, nature is also an attitude of people to get along with the world. If you build a house in the nature of the mountain and water environment, you will lose points if you build it poorly. Not only will it destroy the beauty of the landscape, but you will also feel that the house is redundant. If it is built well, it will add points to nature, and it will also feel that the house should be there, just like the poem written by the Zen master,Fudashi, of the Liang Dynasty in the Southern Dynasties:


There is a kind of "thing" that is true as nature, it precedes the heaven and the earth, and there is it when there is no heaven and the earth. Its authenticity has no form and is everywhere. The Ten Dharma Realm is sacred and majestic because it manifests itself, so it is the "master of all illusions." All illusions will change, but it will not change with time.



Since it is to be built, one should exert every effort to add points to the landscape. Before the design, I learned that some construction workers in the local village might not understand modern drawings, so the design adopted "low skill" as the main strategy, instead of pursuing exquisiteness and magnificence, trying to maintain a certain degree of extensiveness and simplicity as well as some parts can also be made by the workers . This is also like Chinese freehand landscape painting, which creates an artistic conception but does not pursue refinement. The materials used in the meditation center and the retreat rooms show the original colors and textures as much as possible, basically not carved. During the construction, some old bricks and wood materials collected by master were used. There are also some flowers, dead wood, and stubborn stones inside and outside the courtyards as an embellishment, which adds traces of withering and glory of years and agility.


"Craving the taste of Zen is the bondage of the Bodhisattva, and to facilitate life is the solution of the Bodhisattva."

-"Vimalakirti Sutra" Manjusri's Questioning Product No. 5



Traditional context


The predecessor of the Chinese Buddhist temple building was the office venue of the official institution "Temple" in the Han Dynasty. After the first as the Baima Temple in Luoyang in the Han Dynasty, the "Temple" gradually evolved into a venue for Buddhist activities. Gradually develop. Today, Chinese Buddhist architectural thinking has been very solidified. The architecture of Buddhist temples is stagnant in the mortar that simulates the palace of the palace and the flying eaves. It is seriously out of touch with the times. If there is a slight breakthrough, it will often be regarded as "unorthodox." Incorrect", the greed for the so-called "quaint" has become a kind of self-restraint.


Longyan area is an important town of Hakka culture in China, especially the earth buildings in Yongding County and Nanjing County near Zhangzhou are world-famous. However, apart from large earth buildings, the most leftovers are in fact ordinary rammed earth dwellings, but few people still live in them. Most of the houses are vacant and damaged. According to the textual research of Hakka culture and history, this kind of house mainly inherits the tradition of Central Plains dwellings since the end of Han Dynasty. It mainly forms the atmosphere and simplicity of the basic functions of sheltering from wind and rain. It is also the main feature of Han and Tang architecture. Newly built meditation The center and the retreat rooms are based on these traditional characteristics of the local Hakka dwellings, and make people feel ordinary, instead of learning from the traditional features of carving dragons and phoenixes in Ming and Qing temples.


"Why saying that Bodhisattvas use unique and best methods?"

-"Vimalakirti", the ninth item of the indulgence method



Between trade-offs


When talking about Buddhism, many people often think of the word "let down". In fact, we cannot pick up everything, nor can we let go of everything.


From the beginning to the end of the project, what should be taken, what should be released, and the Master has always maintained a very tacit communication. The design is not deliberately classical, nor deliberately modern; if you don't deliberately go ahead, you don't have to be backward; don't force or give up on the result of your imagination. Finally, a temple space suitable for the present and local area was built.


The architectural space and the surrounding environment are integrated with each other through large glass windows. However, if the space is closed and does not open the view to the environment, can it not be integrated with each other? For example, meditation is another way of communicating with the world. Cross-legged, closed eyes, and quietness are not about no longer communicating with the world. The three courtyards are all traditional inward-looking spaces, which are closed to the outside, which is conducive to the practice of homework. Therefore, there is no need to communicate with the outside in a way that opens up the view to the outside like modern buildings.


"If removing the three poisons forever, always purifying the six roots, energizing in body and mind, and cleaning inside and out, it is the real master. (temple)"

-"Dharma Breaking Phase Theory"



Real goal


Religion and practice are actually two things. Religion is a matter of entering the world, and practice is a matter of being born out of the world. However, it is difficult to separate the two, and they can only be carried out with the help of our physical body and the material world.


Buddhism is a way to teach people to understand the world and themselves. After they have the most true understanding of the world and themselves, they can adjust their behavior and face the world and life in a better state. Buddhism including architecture Art is an auxiliary tool to help people understand the world and themselves. Artistic beauty is just a means and not a non-final goal of practice. The main motivation of the construction of the temple is to help those who come to learn Buddhism to have a better place for practice. Through the beauty of art, it will firstly calm people's body and mind, and then further gain a higher physical and mental state.


"All the sights in the world are false. Provided that seeing all the scenery is not scenery,you must seen Buddha."

-The fifth article of "Diamond Sutra"


-《金刚经》第五品 如理实见分

Photo description: 01 total


Total 001 valley overlooking


Total002Winding mountain road


Total 003 A bird's-eye view of the Buddhist temple


Total 004 A bird's-eye view of the Buddhist temple总004禅院鸟瞰

Total 005 A bird's-eye view of the Buddhist temple


Total 006 A bird's-eye view of the Buddhist temple


Total 007 Ksitigarbha statue reminds people to enter the temple


Total 008 the way into the temple


Total 009 Buddhist temple hidden in the bamboo forest


Meditation Center 禅修中心

001 bird's eye view of meditation center 001鸟瞰禅修中心

002 bird's eye view of meditation center 002鸟瞰禅修中心

003 bird's eye view of meditation center 003鸟瞰禅修中心

004 bird's eye view of meditation center 004鸟瞰禅修中心

005 Housing in the human environment, and there is no chariot. Looking at the meditation center in the mist from the statue of Jizo


006 The cicadas noising, the forest more quietly;the birds singing, the mountain is more secluded. Meditation Center in the Mist


007 Meditation Center in the Fog 007雾中的禅修中心

008 The winding path leads to a quiet place, the buddhist room is deep in flowers and trees008曲径通幽处,禅房花木深

009 Facade of Meditation Center 009禅修中心正立面

010 The hillside steps in front of Meditation Center


011 Front Platform of Meditation Center 011禅修中心门前平台

012 Front Platform of Meditation Center 012禅修中心门前平台

013 meditation center in the small hours 013凌晨的禅修中心

014 The hillside steps in front of the meditation center


015 Zen room in deep flowers and trees 015禅房花木深

016 Gate of Meditation Center Gate 016禅修中心院门

017 The moss marks are green on the upper level, and the grass is blue into the curtain. Flowers and plants in front of the meditation center


018 Flowers and plants in front of the meditation center courtyard


019 Steps in front of Meditation Center 019禅修中心门前的台阶

020 Steps in front of Meditation Center 020禅修中心门前的台阶

021 Seeing the cloud spreading in front of the meditation center









022~028Things are innate and intangible, but loneliness is invisible. Landscape sketch有物先天地,无形本寂寥。景观小品

029 Looking at the roof of the meditation center from the back mountain


030 outside of the window of men's room 030男众房间窗外

031The gate of the meditation center at night031夜晚的禅修中心院门

032 Gate of Meditation Center 032禅修中心院门

033 Zen Hall,The main building of Meditation Center


034 The light rain fell like the breaking beads;the mountain temple was dark in the twilight;The sound of babbling startled the dream of birds

;the meditation hall was closing lightly. -Li Jianxiang (painter, now living in Zibo, Shandong)


035The starry sky of the meditation center


036 The middle courtyard of the meditation center 036禅修中心的中院

037 The middle courtyard of the meditation center 037禅修中心的中院

038 The middle courtyard of the meditation center 038禅修中心的中院

039 The middle courtyard of the meditation center 039禅修中心的中院

040 blank-leaving in the meditation center 040禅修中心的留白

041 Corner of the Meditation Center 041禅修中心的角落

042 Eaves of the Meditation Center 042禅修中心的廊檐

043 The middle courtyard of the meditation center 043禅修中心的中院

044 The winding corridor of the meditation center 044禅修中心的回廊

045 The winding corridor of the meditation center 045禅修中心的回廊

046 Pool of Meditation Center 046禅修中心的水池

047 The surrounding environment is very quiet, only a melodious bell is floating


048 The winding corridor of the meditation center


049 The moss is wet after the rain. Details of the meditation center


050 Moisturizing things silently. Details of the meditation center


051Moisturizing things silently. Details of the meditation center


052 details of light and shadow in the meditation center


053 The interior of the meditation hall is high, solemn,wide and clean


054The interior of the meditation hall is high, solemn,wide and clean


055Two wooden beams nearly 11 meters in length prop up the interior of the meditation hall055两根近11米长的木梁撑起了禅堂室内的高广严净

056Two wooden beams nearly 11 meters in length prop up the interior of the meditation hall


057Details of the windows of the meditation hall 057禅堂窗户细部

058The Zen room has deep flowers and trees. A tea room shaded by a bamboo forest


059Looking at the tea room from the bamboo forest 059由竹林望茶室

060Tea room 060茶室

061Tea room 061茶室

062The relationship between tea room and meditation center


063Outside of the window of tea room 063茶室窗外

064Outside of the window of tea room 064茶室窗外

065Outside of the window of tea room 065茶室窗外

066 Interior of the tea room 066茶室内部

067Interior of the tea room 067茶室内部

068Interior of the tea room 茶室内部

069Interior of the tea room 茶室内部

070Interior of the tea room 茶室内部

071 Details of the tea room 茶室细部

072Details of the tea room 茶室细部

073Details of the tea room 茶室细部

074Classroom courtyard 教室院

075 Details of classroom courtyard 教室院细部

076Details of classroom courtyard 教室院细部

077Lights in the classroom 教室内供灯

078Lights in the classroom 教室内供灯

079Female Buddhists’ houses 女众院

080Male Buddhists’ houses 男众院

081Male Buddhists’ houses 男众院

082Male Buddhists’ dormitory 男众宿舍

083Looking at the old temple and distant mountains from the male dormitory


Retreat room:

01Asked why I lived in the mountains, I smiled and did not answer at the same time calmly,Retreat room shaded by mountains and forests


02looking down from above of the retreat room 闭关室鸟瞰

03looking down from above of the retreat room 闭关室鸟瞰

04The winding path leads to a secluded place, and the buddhas are deep in flowers and trees 04曲径通幽处,禅房花木深

05 Distant view of the retreat room闭关室远望

06Outside the retreat room 闭关室院外

07Retreat room courtyard door 闭关室院门

08 Square and round door and window holes 方圆相透的门窗洞

09The round window hole of the courtyard door of the retreat room闭关室院门的圆窗洞

010Walking meditation and exercising can be done in the retreat room闭关室院内可以行禅、锻炼等

011Walking meditation and exercising can be done in the retreat room 闭关室院内可以行禅、锻炼等

012Pool in the retreat room 闭关室院内水池

013Retreat room courtyard door 闭关室院门

014Retreat Room Small Buddha Hall 闭关室小佛堂

015Retreat room doors and windows 闭关室门窗

016Retreat room night 6闭关室夜晚

017Retreat room details 闭关室细部

Old temple老寺庙:

01 Old temple photos from 2012 2012年的老寺庙照片

02Bird's eye view of old temple 老寺庙鸟瞰

03Distant view of the old temple 老寺庙远望

04Wall of courtyard of the old temple 老寺庙的院墙

05Buddha and flowers on the wall of the old temple


06Buddha and flowers on the wall of the old temple 老寺庙院墙的佛与花

07 Flowers outside the old temple 老寺庙院外的花

08 Flowers outside the old temple 老寺庙院外的花

09 Gate of the old temple 老寺庙院门







010~016Interior of the renovated old temple courtyard修整后的老寺庙院内

017detail of the old temple 老寺庙细部

018detail of the old temple 老寺庙细部

019 detail of the old temple 老寺庙细部

020 detail of the old temple 老寺庙细部

021detail of the old temple 老寺庙细部

022Looking at the old temple from the pavilion由凉亭望向老寺庙


000 General layout总平面图

001 General layout of meditation center禅修中心总平面图

002 General layout of retreat yard闭关院总平面图

003 Sketch of meditation center禅修中心设计草图

004 Sketch of meditation center禅修中心设计草图

005 Sketch of meditation center禅修中心设计草图

006 Tea room sketch禅修中心设计草图

007 Retreat yard sketch闭关院设计草图

008 Retreat yard sketch闭关院设计草图

009 old temple sketch 老寺庙设计草图

010 Meditation hall elevation禅堂立面图

011 Meditation hall elevation禅堂立面图

012 Concrete frame drawing of Meditation hall 禅堂混凝土框架图

013 Elevation of tea room 茶室立面图

014 Elevation of retreat yard 闭关院立面图

Dynamic graph动图

01 Context map of local traditional architecture当地的传统建筑文脉动图

02 Dynamic diagram of construction process 建设过程动图

03 scene map 现场景象动图

04 dynamic diagram of daily use 日常使用状况动图


1~4 There are fewer and fewer local traditional folk houses and temple buildings


Project Name: Expansion and design of Dahe Temple in Longyan, Fujian

Location: West of Dahe Village, Dachi Town, Xinluo District, Longyan City, Fujian Province

Design content: architecture, interior, landscape

Total area: about 5000 square meters

Building area: Newly built Meditation Center 910 ㎡, newly built Meditation room 95㎡, old temple renovated about 300㎡.

Design unit: Shanghai Shanxiang Architectural Design Company

Design: Wang Shanxiang Design Team: Li Zhe, Gong Shuangyan, Wang Shanhui

The structure of the meditation center and the closed room: brick-concrete (concrete beams and columns, brick walls, traditional bucket-type wooden roof trusses)

Main materials: concrete, clay bricks, fir, traditional paper-reinforced ash, old blue bricks, cement mortar, terracotta, stone

Photography: Hu Wenjie/www.pdoing.com (a few of which are Wang Shanxiang)

Design time: since 2015 construction time: 2016~2021







设计:王善祥 设计团队:李哲、龚双艳、王善辉



摄影:胡文杰/www.pdoing.com (其中少量为王善祥)

设计时间:2015年起 施工时间:2016~2021年



Shanxiang Architectural Design Co., Ltd., is committed to the quality of the architecture and interior design, is also engaged in the creation of contemporary art。

Presided designer Wang Shanxiang,Settle in Shanghai, being engaged in contemporary art and space design field。Concentrate on the research of harmoniously fusion between fine arts and space。



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